Plumbing may be defined as the practice, materials, and fixtures used in installing, maintaining, and altering piping, fixtures, appliances, and appurtenances in connection with sanitary or storm drainage facilities, a venting system, and public or private water supply systems. Plumbing does not include drilling water wells; installing water softening equipment; or manufacturing or selling plumbing fixtures, appliances, equipment, or hardware. A plumbing system consists of three parts: an adequate potable water supply system; a safe, adequate drainage system; and ample fixtures and equipment.
Hot and Cold Water Main LinesThe hot and cold water main lines are usually hung from the basement ceiling or in the crawl space of the home and are attached to the water meter and hot water tank on one side and the fixture supply risers on the other. These pipes should be installed neatly and should be supported by pipe hangers or straps of sufficient strength and number to prevent sagging. Older homes that have copper pipe with soldered pipes can pose a lead poisoning risk, particularly to children. In 1986, Congress banned lead solder containing greater than 0.2% lead and restricted the lead content of faucets, pipes, and other plumbing materials to no more than 8%. The water should be tested to determine the presence or level of lead in the water. Until such tests can be conducted, the water should be run for about 2 minutes in the morning to flush any such material from the line. Hot and cold water lines should be approximately 6 inches apart unless the hot water line is insulated. This is to ensure that the cold water line does not pick up heat from the hot water line . The supply mains should have a drain valve stop and waste valve to remove water from the system for repairs. These valves should be on the low end of the line or on the end of each fixture riser.
Hot and Cold Water Piping MaterialsCare must be taken when choosing the piping materials. Some state and local plumbing codes prohibit using some of the materials listed below in water distribution systems.
Download the plumbing invoice template to request payment for residential or commercial plumbing services, including replacing fixtures, clearing clogged pipes, and more. Enter the hours worked ($/hr) and the materials used ($/quantity) in or to get a subtotal followed by adding any taxes and other charges.
In this article, you will learn what are types of wrenches and how to use them? With pictures. And also you can download the PDF file at the end of this post. 2b1af7f3a8