The Overtime [REPACK]
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The 2021 Legislature passed ESSB 5172, a bill expanding overtime protections to all agricultural employees, including agricultural piece-rate employees, with a three-year phase-in schedule. Agricultural employees have historically been exempt from receiving overtime pay under the State Minimum Wage Act but that exemption expired Jan. 1, 2022.
The new overtime protections are not retroactive for agricultural workers, and the Employment Standards Program cannot investigate complaints if the occurrence took place prior to the overtime eligibility changes. Dairy workers cannot file claims for overtime hours worked prior to Nov. 5, 2020. However, dairy workers can file complaints if they feel they earned overtime pay after Nov. 5, 2020 and did not receive it.
Some employees are exempt from the overtime pay provisions, some from both the minimumwage and overtime pay provisions and some from the child labor provisions of the FairLabor Standards Act (FLSA). Exemptions are narrowly construed against the employerasserting them. Consequently, employers and employees should always closely check theexact terms and conditions of an exemption in light of the employee's actual duties beforeassuming that the exemption might apply to the employee. The ultimate burden of supportingthe actual application of an exemption rests on the employer.
Commissionedsales employees of retail or service establishments are exempt from overtimeif more than half of the employee's earnings come from commissions and the employeeaverages at least one and one-half times the minimum wage for each hour worked. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.
Drivers,driver's helpers, loaders and mechanics are exempt from the overtime payprovisions of the FLSA if employed by a motor carrier, and if the employee's duties affectthe safety of operation of the vehicles in transportation of passengers or property ininterstate or foreign commerce. You may also wish to review the applicable regulation.
Executive, administrative, professional and outside sales employees: (as defined in Department of Labor regulations) and who are paidon a salary basis are exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime provisions of theFLSA. Other FLSA Exemptions
In California, the general overtime provisions are that a nonexempt employee 18 years of age or older, or any minor employee 16 or 17 years of age who is not required by law to attend school and is not otherwise prohibited by law from engaging in the subject work, shall not be employed more than eight hours in any workday or more than 40 hours in any workweek unless he or she receives one and one-half times his or her regular rate of pay for all hours worked over eight hours in any workday and over 40 hours in the workweek (or double time as specified below). Eight hours of labor constitutes a day's work, and employment beyond eight hours in any workday or more than six days in any workweek requires the employee to be compensated for the overtime at not less than:
There are, however, a number of exemptions from the overtime law. An "exemption" means that the overtime law does not apply to a particular classification of employees. There are also a number of exceptions to the general overtime law stated above. An "exception" means that overtime is paid to a certain classification of employees on a basis that differs from that stated above. In other words, an exception is a special rule. (For special rules regarding overtime for agricultural workers, please see Overtime for Agricultural Workers.)
Ordinarily, the hours to be used in computing the regular rate of pay may not exceed the legal maximum regular hours which, in most cases, is 8 hours per workday, 40 hours per workweek. This maximum may also be affected by the number of days one works in a workweek. It is important to determine what maximum is legal in each case. The alternate method of scheduling and computing overtime under most Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders, based on an alternative workweek schedule of four 10-hour days or three 12-hour days does not affect the regular rate of pay, which in this case also would be computed on the basis of 40 hours per workweek.
The agreed upon regular hours must be used if they are less than the legal maximum regular hours. For example, if you work 32 to 38 hours each week, there is an agreed average workweek of 35 hours, and thirty-five hours is the figure used to determine the regular rate of pay. However, in circumstances where the workweek is less than 40 hours, the law does not require payment of the overtime premium unless the employee works more than eight hours in a workday or more than 40 hours in a workweek. In other words, assuming you are employed under a policy that provides for a 35-hour workweek, the law does not require the employer to pay the overtime premium until after eight hours in a workday or 40 hours in a workweek. If you work more than 35 but fewer than 40 hours in a workweek, you will be entitled to be paid for the extra hours at your regular rate of pay unless you work over eight hours in a workday or 40 hours in a workweek.
The piece or commission rate is used as the regular rate and you are paid one and one-half this rate for production during the first four overtime hours in a workday, and double time for all hours worked beyond 12 in a workday; or
Divide your total earnings for the workweek, including earnings during overtime hours, by the total hours worked during the workweek, including the overtime hours. For each overtime hour worked you are entitled to an additional one-half the regular rate for hours requiring time and one-half, and to the full rate for hours requiring double time.
Yes, California law requires that employers pay overtime, whether authorized or not, at the rate of one and one-half times the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of eight up to and including 12 hours in any workday, and for the first eight hours of work on the seventh consecutive day of work in a workweek, and double the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of 12 in any workday and for all hours worked in excess of eight on the seventh consecutive day of work in a workweek.
Yes, if it is a nondiscretionary bonus. A nondiscretionary bonus is included in determining the regular rate of pay for computing overtime when the bonus is compensation for hours worked, production or proficiency, or as an incentive to remain employed by the same employer. Incentive bonuses include flat sum bonuses. To properly compute overtime on a flat sum bonus, the bonus must be divided by the maximum legal regular hours worked in the bonus-earning period, not by the total hours worked in the bonus-earning period. This calculation will produce the regular rate of pay on the flat sum bonus earnings. Overtime on a flat sum bonus must then be paid at 1.5 times or 2 times this regular rate calculation for any overtime hour worked in the bonus-earning period. Overtime on production bonuses, bonuses designed as an incentive for increased production for each hour worked are computed differently from flat sum bonuses. To compute overtime on a production bonus, the production bonus is divided by the total hours worked in the bonus earning period. This calculation will produce the regular rate of pay on the production bonus. Overtime on the production bonus is then paid at .5 times or 1 times the regular rate for all overtime hours worked in the bonus-earning period. Overtime on either type of bonus may be due on either a daily or weekly basis and must be paid in the pay period following the end of the bonus-earning period.
Discretionary bonuses or sums paid as gifts at a holiday or other special occasion, such as a reward for good service, which are not measured by or dependent upon hours worked, production or efficiency, are not subject to be paid at overtime rates and thus are not included for purposes of determining the regular rate of pay.
Yes, there are certain types of payments that are excluded from the regular rate of pay. Examples of some of the more common exclusions are sums paid as gifts for special occasions, expense reimbursements, payments made for occasional periods when no work is performed due to vacation, holiday, illness, failure of the employer to provide sufficient work, premium pay for Saturday, Sunday, or holiday work (where such premium rate is not less than one and one-half times the rate established in good faith for like work performed in non-overtime hours on other days), and discretionary bonuses.
It depends. A salaried employee must be paid overtime unless they meet the test for exempt status as defined by federal and state laws, or unless they are specifically exempted from overtime by the provisions of the California Labor Code or one of the Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders regulating wages, hours and working conditions.
No, you are not entitled to any overtime pay. Overtime is calculated based on hours actually worked, and you worked only 40 hours during the workweek. Another example of where you get paid your regular wages but the time is not counted towards overtime is if you get paid for a holiday but do not work that day. In such a case, the time upon which the holiday pay is based does not count as hours worked for purposes of determining overtime because no work was performed.
Overtime wages must be paid no later than the payday for the next regular payroll period after which the overtime wages were earned. (Labor Code Section 204) Only the payment of overtime wages may be delayed to the payday of the next following payroll period as the straight time wages must still be paid within the time set forth in the applicable Labor Code section in the pay